Traefik-v2.x快速入门

发布时间:2020-04-14 16:54:35编辑:admin阅读(1525)

    一、概述

    traefik 与 nginx 一样,是一款优秀的反向代理工具,或者叫 Edge Router。至于使用它的原因则基于以下几点

    • 无须重启即可更新配置

    • 自动的服务发现与负载均衡

    • 与 docker 的完美集成,基于 container label 的配置

    • 漂亮的 dashboard 界面

    • metrics 的支持,对 prometheus 和 k8s 的集成

    接下来讲一下它的安装,基本功能以及配置。traefik 在 v1 与 v2 版本间差异过大,本篇文章采用了 v2

    1.png

    traefik官方文档:https://docs.traefik.io/

    注意:Traefikv2.0之后的版本在修改了很多bug之后也增加了新的特性,比如增加了TCP的支持,并且更换了新的WEB UI界面

     

    二、快速开始

    环境介绍

    操作系统:centos7.6

    数量:1台

    docker版本:19.03.6

    docker版本:1.24.1

    ip地址:192.168.28.218

     

    docker-compose启动

    新建yaml文件

    vi traefik-v2.1.yaml

    内容如下:

    version: '3'
    services:
      reverse-proxy:
        image: traefik:2.1.6
        # Enables the web UI and tells Traefik to listen to docker
        # 启用webUI 并告诉Traefile去监听docker的容器实例
        command: --api.insecure=true --providers.docker
        ports:
          # traefik暴露的http端口
          - "80:80"
          # webUI暴露的端口(必须制定--api.insecure=true才可以访问)
          - "8080:8080"
        volumes:
          # 指定docker的sock文件来让traefik获取docker的事件,从而实现动态负载均衡
          - /var/run/docker.sock:/var/run/docker.sock

     

    使用docker-compose创建集群

    # docker-compose -f traefik-v2.1.yaml up -d reverse-proxy
    Creating network "opt_default" with the default driver
    Creating opt_reverse-proxy_1 ... done

     

    查看使用docker-compose启动的应用

    复制代码

    # docker-compose -f traefik-v2.1.yaml ps
           Name                      Command               State                     Ports                   
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------opt_reverse-proxy_1   /entrypoint.sh --api.insec ...   Up      0.0.0.0:80->80/tcp, 0.0.0.0:8080->8080/tcp

    复制代码

     

    直接访问traefik对外暴露的http接口

    curl -s  "http://localhost:8080/api/rawdata" | python -m json.tool

    输出如下:

    {
        "middlewares": {
            "dashboard_redirect@internal": {
                "redirectRegex": {
                    "permanent": true,
                    "regex": "^(http:\\/\\/[^:\\/]+(:\\d+)?)\\/$",
                    "replacement": "${1}/dashboard/"
                },
                "status": "enabled",
                "usedBy": [
                    "dashboard@internal"
                ]
            },
            "dashboard_stripprefix@internal": {
                "status": "enabled",
                "stripPrefix": {
                    "prefixes": [
                        "/dashboard/",
                        "/dashboard"
                    ]
                },
                "usedBy": [
                    "dashboard@internal"
                ]
            }
        },
        "routers": {
            "api@internal": {
                "entryPoints": [
                    "traefik"
                ],
                "priority": 2147483646,
                "rule": "PathPrefix(`/api`)",
                "service": "api@internal",
                "status": "enabled",
                "using": [
                    "traefik"
                ]
            },
            "dashboard@internal": {
                "entryPoints": [
                    "traefik"
                ],
                "middlewares": [
                    "dashboard_redirect@internal",
                    "dashboard_stripprefix@internal"
                ],
                "priority": 2147483645,
                "rule": "PathPrefix(`/`)",
                "service": "dashboard@internal",
                "status": "enabled",
                "using": [
                    "traefik"
                ]
            },
            "reverse-proxy-opt@docker": {
                "rule": "Host(`reverse-proxy-opt`)",
                "service": "reverse-proxy-opt",
                "status": "enabled",
                "using": [
                    "http",
                    "traefik"
                ]
            }
        },
        "services": {
            "api@internal": {
                "status": "enabled",
                "usedBy": [
                    "api@internal"
                ]
            },
            "dashboard@internal": {
                "status": "enabled",
                "usedBy": [
                    "dashboard@internal"
                ]
            },
            "reverse-proxy-opt@docker": {
                "loadBalancer": {
                    "passHostHeader": true,
                    "servers": [
                        {
                            "url": "http://172.18.0.2:80"
                        }
                    ]
                },
                "serverStatus": {
                    "http://172.18.0.2:80": "UP"
                },
                "status": "enabled",
                "usedBy": [
                    "reverse-proxy-opt@docker"
                ]
            }
        }
    }

     

    查看Traefik官方Dashboard

    http://192.168.28.218:8080/

    效果如下:

    1.png

     

     

    三、创建一个路由

    Traefik来检测新服务并为你创建一个路由

    创建一个新服务

    vi test-service.yaml

    内容如下:

    version: '3'
    services:
      whoami:
        image: containous/whoami
        labels:
          - "traefik.http.routers.whoami.rule=Host(`whoami.docker.localhost`)"

    创建服务

    # docker-compose -f test-service.yaml up -d whoami
    WARNING: Found orphan containers (opt_reverse-proxy_1) for this project. If you removed or renamed this service in your compose file, you can run this command with the --remove-orphans flag to clean it up.
    Creating opt_whoami_1 ... done

     

    查看新创建的服务

    # docker-compose  -f test-service.yaml ps
        Name       Command   State   Ports 
    ---------------------------------------opt_whoami_1   /whoami   Up      80/tcp

     

     

    再次查看traefik中的路由信息(就会发现服务自动加载进去了)
    其实有点儿类似kong 的路由,只是traefik会自动监听docker的事件

    curl -s  "http://localhost:8080/api/rawdata" | python -m json.tool

    输出如下:

    {
        "middlewares": {
            "dashboard_redirect@internal": {
                "redirectRegex": {
                    "permanent": true,
                    "regex": "^(http:\\/\\/[^:\\/]+(:\\d+)?)\\/$",
                    "replacement": "${1}/dashboard/"
                },
                "status": "enabled",
                "usedBy": [
                    "dashboard@internal"
                ]
            },
            "dashboard_stripprefix@internal": {
                "status": "enabled",
                "stripPrefix": {
                    "prefixes": [
                        "/dashboard/",
                        "/dashboard"
                    ]
                },
                "usedBy": [
                    "dashboard@internal"
                ]
            }
        },
        "routers": {
            "api@internal": {
                "entryPoints": [
                    "traefik"
                ],
                "priority": 2147483646,
                "rule": "PathPrefix(`/api`)",
                "service": "api@internal",
                "status": "enabled",
                "using": [
                    "traefik"
                ]
            },
            "dashboard@internal": {
                "entryPoints": [
                    "traefik"
                ],
                "middlewares": [
                    "dashboard_redirect@internal",
                    "dashboard_stripprefix@internal"
                ],
                "priority": 2147483645,
                "rule": "PathPrefix(`/`)",
                "service": "dashboard@internal",
                "status": "enabled",
                "using": [
                    "traefik"
                ]
            },
            "reverse-proxy-opt@docker": {
                "rule": "Host(`reverse-proxy-opt`)",
                "service": "reverse-proxy-opt",
                "status": "enabled",
                "using": [
                    "http",
                    "traefik"
                ]
            },
            "whoami@docker": {
                "rule": "Host(`whoami.docker.localhost`)",
                "service": "whoami-opt",
                "status": "enabled",
                "using": [
                    "http",
                    "traefik"
                ]
            }
        },
        "services": {
            "api@internal": {
                "status": "enabled",
                "usedBy": [
                    "api@internal"
                ]
            },
            "dashboard@internal": {
                "status": "enabled",
                "usedBy": [
                    "dashboard@internal"
                ]
            },
            "reverse-proxy-opt@docker": {
                "loadBalancer": {
                    "passHostHeader": true,
                    "servers": [
                        {
                            "url": "http://172.19.0.2:80"
                        }
                    ]
                },
                "serverStatus": {
                    "http://172.19.0.2:80": "UP"
                },
                "status": "enabled",
                "usedBy": [
                    "reverse-proxy-opt@docker"
                ]
            },
            "whoami-opt@docker": {
                "loadBalancer": {
                    "passHostHeader": true,
                    "servers": [
                        {
                            "url": "http://172.19.0.3:80"
                        }
                    ]
                },
                "serverStatus": {
                    "http://172.19.0.3:80": "UP"
                },
                "status": "enabled",
                "usedBy": [
                    "whoami@docker"
                ]
            }
        }
    }

     

    查看http反向代理记录

    查看Traefik中的http反向代理记录,点击HTTP

    1.png

     

    测试traefik相关功能

     测试访问

    复制代码

    # curl -H Host:whoami.docker.localhost  
    Hostname: c334de4bc3c8
    IP: 127.0.0.1IP: 172.19.0.3RemoteAddr: 172.19.0.2:57632GET / HTTP/1.1Host: whoami.docker.localhost
    User-Agent: curl/7.29.0Accept: */*Accept-Encoding: gzip
    X-Forwarded-For: 172.19.0.1
    X-Forwarded-Host: whoami.docker.localhost
    X-Forwarded-Port: 80
    X-Forwarded-Proto: http
    X-Forwarded-Server: 1ee8d25b3aac
    X-Real-Ip: 172.19.0.1

    复制代码

     

    单机扩容

    # docker-compose -f test-service.yaml up -d --scale whoami=2
    WARNING: Found orphan containers (opt_reverse-proxy_1) for this project. If you removed or renamed this service in your compose file, you can run this command with the --remove-orphans flag to clean it up.
    Starting opt_whoami_1 ... doneCreating opt_whoami_2 ... done

     

    再次访问(就会发现自动负载到两个不同的实例上去了)

    复制代码

    # curl -H Host:whoami.docker.localhost  
    Hostname: c334de4bc3c8
    IP: 127.0.0.1IP: 172.19.0.3RemoteAddr: 172.19.0.2:57632GET / HTTP/1.1Host: whoami.docker.localhost
    User-Agent: curl/7.29.0Accept: */*Accept-Encoding: gzip
    X-Forwarded-For: 172.19.0.1
    X-Forwarded-Host: whoami.docker.localhost
    X-Forwarded-Port: 80
    X-Forwarded-Proto: http
    X-Forwarded-Server: 1ee8d25b3aac
    X-Real-Ip: 172.19.0.1

    复制代码

     

    查看Traefike后端每个service的详情信息:

     1.png

     

     就会看到2个service

    1.png

     

     

    四、Traefik配置介绍

    traefik配置结构图

    1.png

     

    在traefik中的配置,会涉及到两方面内容:

    • 动态的路由配置(即由k8s-api或docker相关api来自动发现服务的endpoint而进行路由的配置描述)

    • 静态的启动配置(即traefik标准的启动配置参数)

    注意:使用docker run traefik[:version] --help可查看traefik的配置参数

     

    五、k8s部署Traefik

    环境介绍

    操作系统ip主机名配置备注
    centos 7.6192.168.31.150 k8s-master2核4GKubernetes1.16.3
    centos 7.6192.168.31.178 k8s-node012核8GKubernetes1.16.3

     

     

     

     

    yaml文件介绍

    mkdir /opt/traefik

    目录结构如下:

    ./
    ├── traefik-config.yaml
    ├── traefik-ds-v2.1.6.yaml
    ├── traefik-rbac.yaml
    └── ui.yaml

    traefik-config.yaml

    apiVersion: v1
    kind: ConfigMap
    metadata:
      name: traefik-config
      namespace: kube-system
    data:
      traefik.toml: |
        defaultEntryPoints = ["http","https"]
        debug = false
        logLevel = "INFO"
        # Do not verify backend certificates (use https backends)
        InsecureSkipVerify = true
        [entryPoints]
          [entryPoints.http]
          address = ":80"
          compress = true
          [entryPoints.https]
          address = ":443"
            [entryPoints.https.tls]
        #Config to redirect http to https
        #[entryPoints]
        #  [entryPoints.http]
        #  address = ":80"
        #  compress = true
        #    [entryPoints.http.redirect]
        #    entryPoint = "https"
        #  [entryPoints.https]
        #  address = ":443"
        #    [entryPoints.https.tls]
        [web]
          address = ":8080"
        [kubernetes]
        [metrics]
          [metrics.prometheus]
          buckets=[0.1,0.3,1.2,5.0]
          entryPoint = "traefik"
        [ping]
        entryPoint = "http"

     

    traefik-ds-v2.1.6.yaml

    ---
    apiVersion: v1
    kind: ServiceAccount
    metadata:
      name: traefik-ingress-controller
      namespace: kube-system
    ---
    kind: DaemonSet
    apiVersion: apps/v1
    #apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
    metadata:
      name: traefik-ingress-controller-v2
      namespace: kube-system
      labels:
        k8s-app: traefik-ingress-lb
    spec:
      selector:
        matchLabels:
          name: traefik-ingress-lb-v2
      template:
        metadata:
          labels:
            k8s-app: traefik-ingress-lb
            name: traefik-ingress-lb-v2
        spec:
          serviceAccountName: traefik-ingress-controller
          terminationGracePeriodSeconds: 60
          containers:
          - image: traefik:2.1.6
            name: traefik-ingress-lb-v2
            ports:
            - name: http
              containerPort: 80
              hostPort: 80
            - name: admin
              containerPort: 8080
              hostPort: 8080
            securityContext:
              capabilities:
                drop:
                - ALL
                add:
                - NET_BIND_SERVICE
            args:
            - --api
            - --api.insecure=true
            - --providers.kubernetesingress=true
            - --log.level=INFO
            #- --configfile=/config/traefik.toml
            #volumeMounts:
            #- mountPath: /config
            #  name: config
          volumes:
          - configMap:
              name: traefik-config
            name: config
    ---
    kind: Service
    apiVersion: v1
    metadata:
      name: traefik-ingress-service-v2
      namespace: kube-system
      labels:
        k8s-app: traefik-ingress-lb-v2
    spec:
      selector:
        k8s-app: traefik-ingress-lb-v2
      ports:
        - protocol: TCP
          port: 80
          name: web
        - protocol: TCP
          port: 8080
          name: admin

     

    traefik-rbac.yaml

    ---
    kind: ClusterRole
    apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1beta1
    metadata:
      name: traefik-ingress-controller
    rules:
      - apiGroups:
          - ""
        resources:
          - services
          - endpoints
          - secrets
        verbs:
          - get
          - list
          - watch
      - apiGroups:
          - extensions
        resources:
          - ingresses
        verbs:
          - get
          - list
          - watch
      - apiGroups:
        - extensions
        resources:
        - ingresses/status
        verbs:
        - update
    ---
    kind: ClusterRoleBinding
    apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1beta1
    metadata:
      name: traefik-ingress-controller
    roleRef:
      apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
      kind: ClusterRole
      name: traefik-ingress-controller
    subjects:
    - kind: ServiceAccount
      name: traefik-ingress-controller
      namespace: kube-system

     

    ui.yaml

    ---
    apiVersion: v1
    kind: Service
    metadata:
      name: traefik-web-ui
      namespace: kube-system
    spec:
      selector:
        k8s-app: traefik-ingress-lb
      ports:
      - name: web
        port: 80
        targetPort: 8080
    ---
    apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
    kind: Ingress
    metadata:
      name: traefik-web-ui
      namespace: kube-system
    spec:
      rules:
      - host: prod-traefik-ui.bgbiao.cn
        http:
          paths:
          - path: /
            backend:
              serviceName: traefik-web-ui
              servicePort: web

     

    部署

    cd /opt/traefik
    kubectl apply -f .

     

    查看pod

    # kubectl get pods -n kube-system | grep traefik
    traefik-ingress-controller-v2-hz82b        1/1     Running   0          8m4s

     

     查看svc

    # kubectl get svc -n kube-system | grep traefik
    traefik-ingress-service-v2   ClusterIP   10.1.188.71    <none>        80/TCP,8080/TCP          8m56s
    traefik-web-ui               ClusterIP   10.1.239.107   <none>        80/TCP                   46m

     

    查看ingresses

    # kubectl get ingresses.extensions -n kube-system
    NAME             HOSTS                       ADDRESS   PORTS   AGE
    traefik-web-ui   prod-traefik-ui.bgbiao.cn             80      48m

     

    查看traefik的dashboard

    域名访问

    由于没有dns服务器,这里直接修改hosts来测试。windows 10添加一条hosts记录

    192.168.31.178 prod-traefik-ui.bgbiao.cn

    注意:这里的192.168.31.178是node节点ip

     

    效果如下:

    1.png

     

     

    ip方式

    直接通过node ip+8080方式,比如:

    http://192.168.31.178:8080

    效果同上!

     

    点击http

    1.png

     

     查看 http service

    1.png

     

     效果如下:

    1.png

     

     

    注意:虽然traefikv2.x改动了很多,但是还是向下兼容一些内容的,比如我重新创建traefik-v2.0.1之后,之前创建的ingress规则会自动导入

     

     

    本文参考链接:

    https://www.jianshu.com/p/0fc6df85d00d

    https://zhuanlan.zhihu.com/p/97420459


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